What is Rotavirus Enteritis?
Rotavirus enteritis – an acute viral disease with a predominant disease of children; characterized by symptoms of general intoxication, lesion of the gastrointestinal tract, dehydration.
Causes of Rotavirus Enteritis
The pathogen belongs to the family of Reoviridae, the genus Rotavirus. The name rotavirus received from the Latin rota – wheel, as viral particles under an electron microscope look like small wheels with a thick sleeve, short spokes and a thin rim. Icosahedral virion, 65 – 75 nm in diameter. Capsid is double-layered, built in cuboid type. Contain RNA.
Human rotaviruses can be cultured in green monkey kidney cells. According to antigenic properties, rotaviruses are subdivided into 9 serological types, of which types 1–4 and 8–9 are found in humans, types 5–7 are distinguished from animals. Rotaviruses of animals (dogs, cats, horses, rabbits, mice, calves, birds) for humans are not pathogenic. Rotaviruses are resistant in the environment.
The disease is widespread in many countries around the world, accounting for about half of all intestinal disorders in children in the first two years of life in developing countries. In the United States, over 1 million cases of severe rotavirus diarrhea are observed annually among children aged 1 to 4 years, and in 150 patients the disease is fatal. In 90% of older children, anti-thorn virus antibodies are found in the blood, which indicates a wide spread of this infection.
Antibodies against rotaviruses 1 and 3 serotypes prevailed in Germany and Japan. In different years, different serotypes may prevail in the same country. So, in Australia in 1975, the rotavirus of serotype 3 prevailed, in 1977 and 1978 – of serotype 2, and in 1980 and 1986, the rotavirus of serotype 1 was detected.
Children under the age of 3 years, both in developed and developing countries, are more likely to become ill. Rotaviruses account for 30–50% of all cases of diarrhea requiring hospitalization and rehydration therapy. Adults in families where a child is sick often also get sick, and elderly people with a weakened immune system also become ill.
Rotavirus infection accounts for about 25% of cases of so-called traveler diarrhea. Rotavirus infection can be asymptomatic, such cases are often detected in newborns. Such a course further protects children from severe rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 3 years of life.
The reservoir and sources of the pathogen: a person, patient or carrier. Cross-antigenic bonds between rotaviruses of humans, monkeys and calves have been found, however, the epidemiological significance of animal viruses has not been established.
Rotaviruses are found in the water of rivers, lakes, seas, and in groundwater. The pathogen is excreted with feces (1 g of feces contains up to 10-10 viral particles) for up to 3 weeks (more often 7-8 days from the onset of the disease).
The mechanism of transmission of the pathogen is fecal-oral; transmission routes – water, food, household. The possibility of implementing an airborne or airborne dust transmission path is presumable.
In tropical countries, rotavirus infection occurs year-round with some increase in incidence during the cool rainy season. In countries with a temperate climate, seasonality is quite pronounced with the highest incidence in the winter months.
A person is infected with alimentary. Reproduction and accumulation of reovirus occurs in the upper gastrointestinal tract, in particular in the duodenal epithelium. The absence of severe fever and symptoms of general intoxication (in the absence of information about viremia) suggests that the hematogenous route of dissemination of rotaviruses is not significant.