What is Coronavirus Infection in Children?
Coronavirus infection in children (abbreviated CVI) is an acute viral disease of the respiratory tract, which manifests itself in a variety of symptoms, from mild catarrh of the upper respiratory tract (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract) to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS or SARS – CoV), proceeding in the form SARS with high mortality.
If ARVI diseases are taken as 100%, then CVI accounts for about 10 to 15%.
Coronavirus diseases, manifested as catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, are widespread. Cases of acute pneumonia, bronchitis, rhinosinusitis, etc. are also recorded. There are many strains of coronaviruses, therefore their role in the epidemiological process is difficult to establish. Diagnostic methods are imperfect. The latest outbreak of coronavirus infection has led to the collection of more epidemiological data. In November 2002, the beginning of the first SARS pandemic was fixed in China. The infection has passed through 32 countries, including the USA, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong and China, as well as many other countries. 8460 cases of SARS were recorded (according to WHO) as of June 16, 2003. Among them, there are 799 fatal cases, which is 9.4% of the total number of cases.
Wild animals became a source of coronavirus infection – a Chinese ferret badger, raccoon dog and others. They are bred in many farms in China to produce perfumes, eau de toilette and delicatessen. Infection has a chance to occur during slaughter, skinning and carcass cutting – at almost every stage of the “production process”. It is also suggested that you can become infected while feeding the animal and other care-related activities. Heat treatment helps to kill the virus.
The disease is transmitted in two main ways – contact-household and airborne, as well as others. The disease is easily transmitted from one individual to another, as well as from person to person (and from person to animal). In the high-risk group were employees of hospitals organized for the treatment of patients with SARS. About 25% (one fourth!) Of hospital workers fell ill. Those who had contact with the sick at home (family members, relatives and friends) were also infected.
Specific antibodies were found in SARS-CoV-infected individuals in the body. As an experiment, monkeys were infected with a clinical picture that usually occurs with SARS.
Causes of Coronavirus Infection in Children
The family of coronaviruses includes two genera: coronaviruses and toroviruses. Until recently, it was believed that they excite such diseases: human acute respiratory infections, bird bronchitis, infectious bronchitis of mice, hepatitis of mice and rats, pig gastroenteritis. These diseases sometimes end in death in animals.
There are 3 serological groups in the genus of coronaviruses:
- human coronaviruses, dogs, cats (2 serotypes), pigs (2 serotypes), rabbits;
- human coronaviruses, pigs, mice, rats, cattle and turkeys;
- chicken coronaviruses (chicken bronchitis) and turkeys.
Coronaviruses often change, so SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has emerged – a new version of the virus, which is an independent type. It is called atypical pneumonia coronavirus.
The largest genome among all RNA-containing viruses is precisely in coronaviruses. The organization of the SARS-CoV genome, although similar to that of other groups of coronaviruses, differs from that of the nucleotide sequence in protein composition, which suggests that SARS-CoV is not completely related to the previously studied coronaviruses.
SARS-CoV is very similar, according to many researchers, to bovine coronavirus. The least similar to coronaviruses of pigs, humans, small rodents, birds and other animals.